Sandstones provide the best known conventional reservoirs although more and more unconventional tight reservoirs including low porosity and permeability sandstones, siltstones and shales are being exploited for oil and gas production.
The objectives of this training course are to understand the deposition of clastic reservoir sequences and with the use of sequence stratigraphy and integrated stratigraphic analysis to further constrain geological models. Ultimately it can be used to predict and discover more hydrocarbon plays by understanding where to look for these systems tracts in a typical basin setting. These techniques will also be used to improve the estimation of play and prospect risk and to determine what lithology is going to be drilled ahead of the drill bit.
An overview of depositional environments and characteristics of unconventional reservoirs will also be discussed. This PetroKnowledge course will be presented as a 5-day interactive course dealing with the fundamentals of clastic reservoir characterization and the practical and predictive applications of sequence stratigraphy.
It will include also exercises and some case histories for some interpretation and workshop discussion. This PetroKnowledge training course will be beneficial for those who are interested in understanding clastic reservoir depositional systems and how these can be interpreted in a sequence stratigraphical sense to identify predictive play trends.
Its primary use will be for those involved in lead and prospect generation. This training course is suitable for a wide range of professionals, but will greatly benefit. The training course will be based around PowerPoint presentations for each module followed by interactive and participative individual and team exercises. There will also be workshop sessions based around real exploration and development case studies to get participants actively involved in the interpretation and characterization of clastic reservoirs and to become aware of the predictive capabilities of applied sequence and seismic stratigraphy.
Course participants are also encouraged to bring along sedimentary data, logs and seismic where appropriate from their own companies so that real working examples can be reviewed and interpreted. The organization will have well-trained personnel who can analyse Reservoir rocks in the framework of sequence stratigraphic assessment for a better understanding of reservoir limitations. The new exploration and development wells will be de-risked by applying worldwide sequence stratigraphic techniques.
Participants on this PetroKnowledge training course will be able to conduct sequence stratigraphic analysis for different Clastic and carbonate rocks and understand the response of these rock toward field productivity. Furthermore, they will learn how to apply new methods and techniques for sequence analysis and combine all available data to reach to the best model for the area.
Material published by Petroknowledge shown here is copyrighted. All rights reserved. Any unauthorized copying, distribution, use, dissemination, downloading, storing in any mediumtransmission, reproduction or reliance in whole or any part of this course outline is prohibited and will constitute an infringement of copyright.
Abu Dhabi Representative Office : P. Vienna, Austria. North America Boston, U. A Houston TX, U. New York, U.Looking for an independent, reputable third-party, petrographic analysis of concrete, mortars, building stone and other geological materials?
Lucideon performs petrographic analysis to evaluate the integrity of concrete and understand the mineralogy of materials. A mineralogical assessment of the aggregate is also performed to determine if appropriate aggregate was used and if it caused any deleterious reactions.
This analysis provides detailed information about the relative composition and distribution of coarse and fine aggregate, cement paste, entrained and entrapped air. FTIR analysis - Utilized to identify contaminants and verify the composition of binders, epoxies, coatings, and other organic materials. From the petrographic examination and knowledge of the origin of the stone, denomination criteria can be assigned BS EN Provides an unambiguous definition of the stone.
Get in touch. Find out more. Link to PDF. Petrographic Analysis Looking for an independent, reputable third-party, petrographic analysis of concrete, mortars, building stone and other geological materials? Our evaluations can answer the following types of questions: Did the materials used match the concrete mix design? Is the air content entrapped and entrained porosity? Has it cured correctly? Is there evidence of deleterious degradation of the concrete?
What is the geological provenance of the stone? Contact us Get in touch. Register or sign in below to access our resources. Register Email Password Sign in Forgot your password? Lucideon logo Created with Sketch.Petrography is a branch of petrology that focuses on detailed descriptions of rocks. Someone who studies petrography is called a petrographer.
The mineral content and the textural relationships within the rock are described in detail. The classification of rocks is based on the information acquired during the petrographic analysis. Petrographic descriptions start with the field notes at the outcrop and include macroscopic description of hand specimens. However, the most important tool for the petrographer is the petrographic microscope. The detailed analysis of minerals by optical mineralogy in thin section and the micro-texture and structure are critical to understanding the origin of the rock.
Electron microprobe or atom probe tomography analysis of individual grains as well as whole rock chemical analysis by atomic absorptionX-ray fluorescenceand laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy are used in a modern petrographic lab.
Individual mineral grains from a rock sample may also be analyzed by X-ray diffraction when optical means are insufficient. Analysis of microscopic fluid inclusions within mineral grains with a heating stage on a petrographic microscope provides clues to the temperature and pressure conditions existent during the mineral formation.
Petrography as a science began in when Scottish physicist William Nicol invented the technique for producing polarized light by cutting a crystal of Iceland spara variety of calciteinto a special prism which became known as the Nicol prism. The addition of two such prisms to the ordinary microscope converted the instrument into a polarizing, or petrographic microscope. Using transmitted light and Nicol prisms, it was possible to determine the internal crystallographic character of very tiny mineral grains, greatly advancing the knowledge of a rock's constituents.
During the s, a development by Henry C. Sorby and others firmly laid the foundation of petrography. This was a technique to study very thin slices of rock. A slice of rock was affixed to a microscope slide and then ground so thin that light could be transmitted through mineral grains that otherwise appeared opaque.
The position of adjoining grains was not disturbed, thus permitting analysis of rock texture. Thin section petrography became the standard method of rock study. Since textural details contribute greatly to knowledge of the sequence of crystallization of the various mineral constituents in a rock, petrography progressed into petrogenesis and ultimately into petrology. It was in Europe, principally in Germany, that petrography advanced in the last half of the nineteenth century.
The macroscopic characters of rocks, those visible in hand-specimens without the aid of the microscope, are very varied and difficult to describe accurately and fully. The geologist in the field depends principally on them and on a few rough chemical and physical tests; and to the practical engineer, architect and quarry-master they are all-important. Although frequently insufficient in themselves to determine the true nature of a rock, they usually serve for a preliminary classification, and often give all the information needed.
With a small bottle of acid to test for carbonate of lime, a knife to ascertain the hardness of rocks and minerals, and a pocket lens to magnify their structure, the field geologist is rarely at a loss to what group a rock belongs. The fine grained species are often indeterminable in this way, and the minute mineral components of all rocks can usually be ascertained only by microscopic examination. But it is easy to see that a sandstone or grit consists of more or less rounded, water-worn sand grains and if it contains dull, weathered particles of feldspar, shining scales of mica or small crystals of calcite these also rarely escape observation.
Shales and clay rocks generally are soft, fine grained, often laminated and not infrequently contain minute organisms or fragments of plants. Limestones are easily marked with a knife-blade, effervesce readily with weak cold acid and often contain entire or broken shells or other fossils. The crystalline nature of a granite or basalt is obvious at a glance, and while the former contains white or pink feldspar, clear vitreous quartz and glancing flakes of mica, the other shows yellow-green olivine, black augite, and gray stratiated plagioclase.
Other simple tools include the blowpipe to test the fusibility of detached crystalsthe goniometerthe magnet, the magnifying glass and the specific gravity balance. When dealing with unfamiliar types or with rocks so fine grained that their component minerals cannot be determined with the aid of a hand lens, a microscope is used. Characteristics observed under the microscope include colour, colour variation under plane polarised light pleochroismproduced by the lower Nicol prismor more recently polarising filmsfracture characteristics of the grains, refractive index in comparison to the mounting adhesive, typically Canada balsamand optical symmetry birefringent or isotropic.
In totothese characteristics are sufficient to identify the mineral, and often to quite tightly estimate its major element composition. The process of identifying minerals under the microscope is fairly subtle, but also mechanistic - it would be possible to develop an identification key that would allow a computer to do it.This valuable concrete testing mehtod will help determine whether issues will affect concrete performance or are just skin deep.
Low Strength. These are sources of dissatisfaction for owners and aggravation for contractors involved in concrete construction.
Petrography: What It Can and Cannot Do
Because petrography is often used to investigate the causes of these problems, you should have a basic understanding of how petrography works and what its capabilities and limitations are. Petro means rock; graphic means a pictorial device used for illustration. Petrographers do most of their work with microscopes that use reflected light stereomicroscopetransmitted light petrographic microscope and electron beams scanning electron microscope, SEM to identify basic components in concrete, study cracks and microcracks, and identify secondary deposits that form when concrete deteriorates, such as gel from alkali-silica reaction.
Figures show examples of images produced from these microscopes. With the SEM, petrographers can even map the chemistry of concrete on a microscopic scale Figure 4. A huge advantage petrography has over any other test method is that it allows us to see concrete elements through their thickness, rather than relying only on an exposed surface for information Figure 5. For example, a petrographic examination can demonstrate that a simple grinding treatment will suffice for a repair, rather than an expensive overlay or a needless removal and replacement.
The bottom line for the contractor is that if concerns arise and your project is cored for petrography, someone in a lab far away from the jobsite may be looking at your concrete and potentially criticizing your craftsmanship at magnifications greater than x. The following sections give an idea of what this high-powered looking tells petrographers that is useful and may even be true.
Future articles will revisit some of these aspects in more detail.
Evaluate proportioning. Petrographers typically describe the coarse and fine aggregate, identify cementitious materials such as portland cement, fly ash, slag cement and other supplemental materials, and describe voids associated with air entrainment, entrapped air, bleeding and consolidation.
Point counting methods e. Evaluate mixing and consolidation. The distribution of components in the concrete provide important information on mixing and consolidation. Aggregate segregation and loss of air can indicate when and where over-vibration occurred. Low strengths can result from problems with batching and proportioning, such as excessive air or the presence of fly ash in what is supposed to be a straight cement mix.
Retempering and excessive water additions are also common causes of low strength and can be recognized with petrography.
Improper sample preparation is another cause of low strength test results and petrographic examinations can detect when this occurs.
Evaluate finishing and curing. Almost anyone can identify the type of finish hard trowel or broom, for example with a naked eye, but petrography can unveil much more about finishing operations.
For example, petrographers are often able to determine if finishing was timed appropriately by looking at properties of the paste at and just below the finished surface.We'd like to let you know that at CVS we are still working, from home. We wish you well, and hope you, your families, friends, colleagues and community are keeping safe. This problem has been solved. Reinstalling the camera drivers fixed the issue. If you have recently returned to your office and found a problem then you may need to update or reinstall camera drivers.
Check with your camera supplier or contact support if you need assistance. Also PetrogLite update 4.
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If you have difficulties then please ensure your browser has the latest updates. Replacing a Swift automatic point counter. Converts your computer into a digital point counter - the low-cost solution for petrographers in any industry. An ultra slim stepping stage for positioning slides on the rotary stage of a polarising microscope. Invaluable for digital point counting and other applications. State of the art software for petrographic thin section data capture and analysis. PETROG integrates with your microscope camera to work with real-time video images and provide virtual slides and whole slide mosaics using image stitching.
Academic and Research. Upgrade from PetrogLite. Custom Work Flow and Protocols. Data Structures.Due to the astounding costs of infrastructure replacement, it is critical to conduct a thorough material assessment to understand when repairs can save or extend the service life of the structure.
Petrography is a branch of geology that is applied to concrete and concrete raw materials. This technique examines and evaluates the optical properties and microstructural characteristics of the materials. Once the concrete is hardened, a petrographic examination that follows American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM C and ASTM C can be applied to verify that the product was mixed as designed and that the appropriate or specified materials were used.
Concrete petrography also helps to identify the nature of deterioration or defects, to determine the degree of damage, and to evaluate whether the damage will continue. Perhaps most critically, petrographic analyses aid repair versus replace decisions, making them an integral part of evaluation strategies.
The information from a petrographic analysis is most commonly used to uncover performance issues or degradation mechanisms and the extent of damage, though it can also be used to verify mix design.
Petrographic analysis is only a small piece of the puzzle when evaluating a structure for durability and performance. While petrographers analyze characteristics of concrete at the micro level, engineers or inspectors provide the visual inspection data required to have a complete understanding of the structural issues.
A construction inspector or engineer with knowledge of the site, history, and exposure conditions may also identify the need for supplementary tests to evaluate the concrete mechanical properties, steel, and chemical ingress. Interpretation of the observations gathered during a petrographic examination is greatly improved with knowledge of this supplementary information about the structure and reason for the petrography testing request.
When the engineer or other professional inspecting a concrete structure works directly with the petrographer to provide supporting information the collaboration leads to better decisions for repair or replacement of the structure. Visual inspection suggested corrosion of the steel reinforcement that was beyond repair. During the investigation, 38 cores were taken at different sampling sites. The lab testing program included compressive strength, petrographic, and chloride profiling.
In this case, petrographic analysis saved the bridge. The corrosion was NOT the cause of cracking. Cracks were confined to a 6-foot section near the joints where the air entrainment was not able to prevent freeze thaw damage. The freeze thaw damage in turn allowed moisture to penetrate the area, which triggered an alkali silica reaction ASR.
The ASR was confined to a small perimeter, and it was projected that the structure could be repaired for a minimum investment and the service life could be extended about 25 years through a combination of repairs and maintenance. To read more about this case study and others, click here.
The root cause of concrete deterioration can often be attributed to quality issues seen at the microscopic level of the material. In situations where critical structures could cost millions of dollars to replace, a trained petrographer may be able to determine whether a repair solution is feasible. What Happens During Petrographic Analyses?
Some of the information provided during a petrographic analysis includes: Air content and distribution — Concrete is often entrained with small air bubbles to provide resistance to damage due to freeze thaw cycles.
Petrography techniques are used to evaluate air void amount and distribution, to determine whether they are present in sufficient amounts, and to determine whether their spacing provides freeze thaw durability in their environment.
Entrapped air and the locations where bleed water has left air voids are also examined and evaluated. The location, distribution, and size of air voids can uncover placement and finishing issues. ASTM methods provide technical standards for material evaluation and testing. A petrographic exam of the aggregate in hardened concrete will identify the aggregate type, size, shape, and amount to determine if it is within the design specifications.Things to Comeand the Present European Situation" (Reprint).
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Optical Mineralogy and Petrography
The Emergence of the Modern World Conference, Otzenhausen, Germany: Penn State University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 November 2009. Retrieved 14 October 2009.